no. 4

  • Ship Burial, Heorot, and the Danish Origins of Beowulf

    Author:Songlin Wang

    Abstract: The narratives of ship burials and Heorot in Beowulf are evidenced in the archaeological excavations of the Ship Burial at Sutton Hoo and the Great Halls at Lejre, both suggesting that Beowulf was most likely introduced to Britain during the Danish invasion. This is specifically exhibited in the historical and cultural traces of the ancient Danes in the epic.

    Column:British Sea Literature Studies   001-010   Details

  • The Metaphor of Imperial Crisis: The Seascape in Late Victorian British Sea Novels

    Author:Yingling Deng, Jiaxuan Shi

    Abstract: Seascape is not only a visual representation related to the sea or sea life, but also an objective existence with a social function. In late Victorian British sea novels, the decadent ship which owns the metaphorical effect of “the ship of state” stands for the national governance crisis; the image of the decaying seaport implies the marine commercial crisis with its decaying commercial atmosphere; the exotic scenery which focuses on “the civilized other” and “the barbaric self” highlights the colonial culture crisis. Studying on the seascape in late Victorian British sea novels helps explore its metaphorical function in national image, social order and colonial culture, and reveals the reasons why the British empire fell into crisis in the late 19th century.

    Column:British Sea Literature Studies   011-019   Details

  • "Grotesque" Food and "Alienated" Subjectivity: Identity Dilemma in The Ballad of the Sad Café

    Author:Huiqin Chen, Mingwen Xiao

    Abstract: Carson McCullers's gothic masterpiece The Ballad of the Sad Café portrays typical McCullers' marginalized characters. Miss Amelia, the hunchback Lymon, and the poor whites in the town, struggle against the distortion between fantasy and their real identities. The characters attempt to reshape their biological, psychological and social identities via culinary performances, but their eating habits expose their true colors: an outwardly strong but inwardly weak meat-eater, a sweetness-addicted "child," and alcohol-indulged revelers. Employing culinary criticism, this essay reveals the intertwinement between the characters' gastronomical behaviors and their identity construction.

    Column:Literature and Culture Studies   020-029   Details

  • Emotion and the Reconfiguration of Memory: On the Representation of Memory in The Buried Giant

    Author:Xiuli Zhang

    Abstract: Kazuo Ishiguro's The Buried Giant revolves around an old couple's search for their son, and shows how traumatic emotions trigger, affect, and even limit the reconfiguration of memory on two levels: individual and collective memory. On the one hand, constructed memory can heal the historical pain of emotion, on the other hand, it may be abused by greed, paving the way for violence. The individual or collective traumatic experience caused by the historical betrayal is constantly and forcibly involved in the present in the form of fragments, which promotes memory; the spatial movement of the body promotes the collision and communication of fragment memories, and in this process the individual or collective memory is constantly modified and shaped; the transmission of emotion in the past and present of individuals, as well as across generations, ...

    Column:Literature and Culture Studies   030-037   Details

  • Physical Vision, Imagination and Spiritual Vision: "The Envisioned Truth" in Paradise Lost

    Author:Minghua Qu, Wei Wang

    Abstract: In Paradise Lost, Milton uses the action of seeing to represent the quest of truth. “Seeing” in the epic can be divided into three types, physical vision, imagination and spiritual vision. This article, in light of platonic theory of truth, analyses the cognitive mechanisms and results of each kind of “seeing.” The analysis reveals that physical vision, though vulnerable to the influence of evil, is a principal beginning of the recollection of truth. The imagination of appearances only produces opinion while inspirational imagination serves as a mediator between sensual and divine knowledge. Spiritual vision is the most ideal means of cognition and the spiritual vision of God sets the Good as the ultimate truth. Such analysis demonstrates that the means of cognition and the standard of envisioned truth in the epic are platonic, further revealing the classic dimension of Miltonic epistemological ideas.

    Column:Literature and Culture Studies   038-047   Details

  • On the Ambivalence of the "la amada" in Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair

    Author:Hongru Xing

    Abstract: Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair is one of Pablo Neruda's most famous works. The poet's lyrical object, "la amada," has become the focus of feminist literary criticism in recent years. However, criticism of the "la amada" has focused on the rhetorical techniques of the text and its association with gender culture, ignoring the inherent ambivalence of the "la amada," which exists independently of the lyrical subject "I," and which is the very foundation upon which her subjectivity is constructed.

    Column:Literature and Culture Studies   048-060   Details

  • A Systematic View of the Way of Translation (Studies)

    Author:Zhonglian Huang

    Abstract: "The way of translation (studies)" consists of how translation and translation studies are done. Translation practice is the silver bullet of translation studies, from which clues and inspiration for translation techniques can be found. Perception and association tease the extraordinary out of the ordinary. Translation is first human experience but transcendental thinking allows us to extract translation thoughts, propose translation theories and ultimately formulate the methodological system of translation studies.

    Column:The Way of Translation (Studies)   061-069   Details

  • Similarity in Translation

    Author:Haijun Li, Fengmei Jiang

    Abstract: In most cases, there is no equivalence between the original and the translated text; instead, there is only similarity between them. There are two levels of similarity: approximate similarity and exceeding similarity. The former is dominant in translation while the latter relatively rare. There are three kinds of similarity: formal similarity, sematic similarity and spiritual similarity. Semantic similarity is the basic requirement for translation; formal similarity is a higher pursuit for translation; and spiritual similarity is an ideal state for translation. In order to achieve similarity between the original and the translated text, the translator should firstly understand accurately the original, and then make flexible use of different complete translation methods and techniques to express correctly and fully the meaning of the original and convey subtly and fully the style of the original.

    Column:The Way of Translation (Studies)   070-079   Details

  • Decomposition Mechanism of Complete Translation

    Author:Na Xin

    Abstract: The decomposition mechanism of complete translation is a modeling study about decomposition behavior of complete translation by translator. It specifically refers to the structural relationship and operation mode between each factor such as translator, original text and translated text splitting translation behavior of translator. In this paper we take form and content of the language as the breakthrough point for analyzing their decomposition operation mode on the understanding stage, transformation stage, expression stage. The decomposition mechanism of complete translation mainly manifests in the following two aspects: on the one hand, the form segmentation on the understanding stage; on the other hand, the content decomposition in transformation stage and form differentiation in expression stage. The decomposition mechanism of complete translation is a theory derivation and it benefited to intensive study of complete translation essence.

    Column:The Way of Translation (Studies)   080-088   Details

  • A Trilogy of Optimization Pedagogy for Developing Translation Competence

    Author:Liyuan Peng

    Abstract: The core purpose of translation teaching is to develop students’ translation competence. Translation teaching can be centered on practicing multiple translation of sentences with proper concern for textual cohesion and coherence, and a “Trilogy of Optimization Pedagogy” (TOP) can be applied to decrease translation errors and obtain quality translations step by step. The trilogy of optimization are as follows: firstly to practice making multiple versions for the same source sentence from various perspectives until most satisfactory ones are obtained; secondly to practice looking back and forth within larger textual combinations to evaluate critically and penetratingly those different versions for clumsiness or harshness whatsoever in each; and thirdly to practice refining cohesion and coherence in larger textual combinations so as to create ...

    Column:Translation Studies   089-098   Details

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